Acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect study of unripe walnut fruit thick water-alcohol
Keywords:unripe walnut fruit thick water-alcohol extract, acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory action
Topicality. From the literature, it is known that the walnut composition includes tannins, derivatives of ellagic acid, catechins, derivatives of dicarboxylated acids, nucleic acids, amino acids that independently of one another have antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and many other useful effects in human body. However, no experimental data on the effect of unripe walnut fruit thick water-alcohol extract (ETWA) in the inflammatory process.
Aim. To study acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effect of ETWA.
Materials and methods. Study ETWA acute toxicity (LD50) was carried out by the method of Prozorovsky V. K. and co-authors. Studies of ETWA anti-inflammatory effect were carried out on models of carrageenan, formalin and zymosan inflammation of rats’ paw.
Results and discussion. In the experiment, ETWA acute toxicity of mice was studied and it was referred to the V toxicity class according to the classification by Sidorov K. K. Based on the results of ETWA anti-inflammatory effect, at a dose of 25 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory effect was found which is probably based on cell membranes stabilization, inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6 production, inhibition of Pin1 activity, decrease in NO level, and partial suppression of COX and the decrease in enzyme 5-lipoxygenase activity.
Conclusions. The received data of the researches allow to consider ETWA in a dose of 25 mg/kg, as a safe anti-inflammatory agent.
Zatokovyi, F. T, Satina, L. F. (2009). Peredhirske ta hirske tvarynnytstvo, 51 (1),57–61.
Shynkarenko, A. L., Sokolov, S. D., Dorodneva, V. I. (1967). Voprosy kurortologii, farmatcii, farmacologii. Piatigorsk, 365–366.
Kovalov, V. M. Pavlii, O. I., Isakova, T. I. (2000). Farmakohnoziia z osnovamy biokhimii roslyn. Kharkiv: Prapor, Vydavnytstvo NFaU, 703.
Solodovnychenko, N. M., Zhuravlov, M. S., Kovalov, V. M. (2001). Likarska roslynna syrovyna ta fitopreparaty. Kharkiv: Zoloti storinky, 408.
Alasalvar, C., Shahidi, F. (2009). Tree Nuts : Composition, Phytochemicals, and Health effects. Nutraceutical Science and Technology. Boca Raton, London, New York: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Grup, 307.
Stefanova, A. (2001). Doklinichni doslidzhennia likarskykh zasobiv. Kyiv: Avicena, 528.
Zapadniuk, I. P., Zapadniuk, V. I., Zaharina, E. A., Zapadniuk, B. V. (1983). Laboratornye zhyvotnye. Razvedenie, soderzhanie, ispolzovanie v eksperimente. Kiev: Vyshcha shkola, 381.
Prozorovskii, V. K., Pchelintcev, S. P. (1983). Farmakologiia i toksikologiia, 91–94.
Landa, P., Kutil, Z., Temml, V., Vuorinen, A., Malik, J., Dvorakova, M., Vanek, T. (2011). Redox and Non–Redox Mechanism ofIn VitroCyclooxygenase Inhibition by Natural Quinones. Planta Medica, 78 (04), 326–333. doi: 10.1055/s–0031–1280430
Maruo, S., Kuriyama, I., Kuramochi, K., Tsubaki, K., Yoshida, H., Mizushina, Y. (2011). Inhibitory effect of novel 5–O–acyl juglones on mammalian DNA polymerase activity, cancer cell growth and inflammatory response. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 19 (19), 5803–5812. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.08.023
Pinho, B. R., Sousa, C., Valentão, P., Andrade, P. B. (2011). Is Nitric Oxide Decrease Observed with Naphthoquinones in LPS Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages a Beneficial Property? PLoS ONE, 6 (8), e24098. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024098
Boussetta, T., Gougerot–Pocidalo, M.–A., Hayem, G., Ciappelloni, S., Raad, H., Arabi Derkawi, R., El–Benna, J. (2010). The prolyl isomerase Pin1 acts as a novel molecular switch for TNF–alpha–induced priming of the NADPH oxidase in human neutrophils. Blood, 116 (26), 5795–5802. doi: 10.1182/blood–2010–03–273094
Copyright (c) 2017 National University of Pharmacy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).