Study of polyphenolic compounds in composition of thick extracts from immature walnut fruit

E. V. Zalygina, O. A. Podpletnya, K. V. Sokolova

Abstract


Topicality.  Phenolic compounds – the most common class of biologically active substances of plant origin, which have low toxicity, positively affect the physiological processes in the human body, increasing its stability. Phenolic compounds include tannins, tannins, lignin, melanin, humic acids. In  human body and animals aromatic rings are not synthesized, but can get into through plant food consumption and are included in many vitally important phenolic compounds – adrenaline, thyroxine, serotonin, etc. Most of the pharmacological effects of polyphenols are associated with their high antioxidant activity. Now an active search for new sources of plant-derived antioxidants, in particular polyphenols for the pharmaceutical industry, is underway. Our attention was attracted by thick extracts from unripe walnut fruit and their antimicrobial, gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity.

Aim. To investigate the quantitative and qualitative composition of polyphenolic compounds of thick extracts from immature walnut fruit.

Materials and methods. Dense aqueous extract and thick water-alcohol extracts with an extractant concentration of 30 % ethyl alcohol, 70 % and 96 % were obtained on the basis of the NPAU under the guidance of Professor V. A. Georgiyants, by complex processing of immature fruits of the milk-waxy ripeness of walnut (Júglans régia L.). Determination of the content of polyphenolic compounds in thick extracts from immature HB fruits was carried out by the method of absorption spectrophotometry.

Results and discussion. We found out that the test solutions from the dense aqueous extract and the thick aqueous-alcoholic extracts with an ethyl alcohol concentration of 30 %, 70 % and 96 % are characterized by the presence of an absorption maximum at a wavelength of 745 nm, which is close to the maximum absorption of the solution of the standard pyrogallol substance prepared in the same conditions. The  tannins content, in terms of pyrogallol, in percent for water extract was 1.94 %, and for water-alcohol (30 %, 70 %, 96 %) – 2.02 %, 2.10 %, 1.42 %.

Conclusions. By the method of absorption spectrophotometry, polyphenolic compounds were found in composition of all the studied thick extracts from immature walnut fruit. The highest amount of tannins is contained in water-alcohol 70 % extract (2.10 %), the lowest – in water-alcohol 96 % (1.42 %). The number of polyphenol compounds in aqueous and hydroalcoholic 30 %, 70 % extracts has no significant differences.


Keywords


dense water-alcohol extracts from immature walnut fruit; polyphenolic compounds; biologically active substances; absorption spectrophotometry

References


Harborne, J. B., Dey, P. M. (1989). Methods in Plant Biochemistry. Plant Phenols.London: Academic Press, 401.

Bravo, L. (2009). Polyphenols: Chemistry, Dietary Sources, Metabolism, and Nutritional Significance. Nutrition Reviews, 56 (11), 317–333. doi: 10.1111/j.1753–4887.1998.tb01670.x

Tomás–Barberán, F. A., Espín, J. C. (2001). Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of quality in fruits and vegetables. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81 (9), 853–876. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.885

Ghasemi, P. A., Rahnama, G. H., Malekpoor, F., Roohi, B. H. (2011). Variation in antibacterial activity and phenolic content of Hypericum scabrum L. Populations. J. Med. Plants Res, 5, 4119–4125.

Haq, M., Sani, W., Hossain, A. B. M. S., Taha, R. M., Monneruzzaman, K. M. (2011). Total phenolic contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. J. Med. Plants Res., 5, 4112–4118.

Meot–Duros, L., Magné, C. (2009). Antioxidant activity and phenol content of Crithmum maritimum L. leaves. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 47 (1), 37–41. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2008.09.006

Fukuda, T. (2009). Tree Nuts. (Walnut polyphenols: structures and functions). Nutraceutical Scence and Technology.Boca Raton/London/New York: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Grup, 307.

Zalyhina, Ye. V., Podleletnia, O. A. (2016). Zbirnyk materialiv VIII Natsionalnoho zizdu farmatsevtiv Ukrainy, 45.

Zalygina, E. V., Koshova, I.P., Podleletnia, O. A. (2017). Antimicrobial activity of thick aqueous–alcoholic extract of unripe walnut fruits. East European Scientific, 1.

Zalyhina, Ye. V., Podleletnia, O. A., Slesarchuk, V. Yu. (2017). Ukrainskyi biofarmatsevtychnyi zhurnal, 2 (49).

Zalyhina, Ye. V., Podleletnia, O. A. (2016) Farmakolohiia ta likarska toksykolohiia, 6.

Zalyhina, Ye. V. (2017). Farmakolohiia ta likarska toksykolohiia, 6 (56), 72–82.

Zalyhina, Ye. V., Slesarchuk, V. Yu., Podleletnia, O. A., Babanina, N. U. (2018) Liky – liudyni. Suchasni problemy farmakoterapii i pryznachennia likarskykh zasobiv. Kharkiv, 1, 268.


GOST Style Citations


1.         Methods in Plant Biochemistry / eds. P. M. Dey, J. B. Harborne // Plant Phenols. –London: Academic Press, 1989. – 401 p.

2.         Bravo, L. Polyphenols : Chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance / L. Bravo // Nutr. Rev. – 2009. – Vol. 56, Issue 11. – P. 317–333. doi: 10.1111/j.1753–4887.1998.tb01670.x

3.         Francisco, A. Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of quality in fruits and vegetables / A. Francisco, F. A. Tomas–Barberan, C. E. Juan // J. Sci. Food Agric. – 2001. – Vol. 81, Issue 9. – P. 853–876. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.885

4.         Variation in antibacterial activity and phenolic content of Hypericum scabrum L. populations / P. A. Ghasemi, G. H. Rahnama, F. Malekpoor, B. H. Roohi // J. Med. Plants Res. – 2011. – Vol. 5. – P. 4119–4125.

5.         Total phenolic contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza / M. Haq, W. Sani, A. B. M. S. Hossain et al. // J. Med. Plants Res. – 2011. – Vol. 5. – P. 4112–4118.

6.         Meot, D. L. Antioxidant activity and phenol content of Crithmum maritimum L. leaves / D. L. Meot, C. Magne // Plant Physiol. Biochem. – 2009. – Vol. 47. – Р. 37–41. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2008.09.006

7.         Tree Nuts. (Walnut polyphenols: structures and functions) / Ed. By T. Fukuda // Nutraceutical Sci. and Technol. –Boca Raton/London/New York : CRC Press Taylor & Francis Grup, 2009. – 307 p.

8.         Залигіна, Є. В. Експериментальне дослідження впливу густого екстракту з незрілих плодів горіха волоського на функціональні показники роботи шлунково–кишкового тракту / Є. В. Залигіна, О. А. Подплетня // Зб. матер. VIII Нац. з’їзду фармацевтів України 13–16 вересня 2016 р. – Х. – 45 c.

9.         Zalygina, E. V. Antimicrobial activity of thick aqueous–alcoholic extract of unripe walnut fruits / E. V. Zalygina, I. P. Koshova, E. A. Podpletnia // East Eur. Sci. – 2017. – Vol. 1.

10.       Залигіна, Є. В. Дослідження гострої токсичності та протизапальної дії екстракту густого водно–спиртового з незрілих плодів горіха волоського / Є. В. Залигіна, О. А. Подплетня, В. Ю. Слєсарчук // УБФЖ. – 2017. – № 2 (49).

11.       Залигіна, Є. В. Скринінгове дослідження противиразкової активності густих екстрактів незрілих плодів горіха волоського / Є. В. Залигіна, О. А. Подплетня // Фармакол. та лікарська токсикол. – 2016. – № 6.

12.       Залигіна, Є. В. Порівняльне вивчення токсичності густого водно–спиртового екстракту з незрілих плодів горіха волоського та препарату Альтан за повторного ведення шурам / Є. В. Залигіна // Фармакол. та лікарська токсикол. – 2017. – № 6 (56). – С. 72–82.

13.       Перспективи створення нових противиразкових лікарських засобів на основі біологічно активних речовин горіха волоського / Є. В. Залигіна, В. Ю. Слєсарчук, О. А. Подплетня, Н. Ю. Бабаніна // Ліки – людині. Сучасні проблеми фармакотерапії і призначення лікарських засобів : матер. ІІ Міжнар. наук.–практ. конф. (28–29 березня 2018 року) / у 2–х т. – Т. 1. – Х. – 268 с.





DOI: https://doi.org/10.24959/ubphj.18.171

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Abbreviated key title: Ukr. bìofarm. ž.

ISSN 2519-8750 (Online), ISSN 2311-715X (Print)