Diagnostic signs of morphological and anatomical structure of Medicago falcata L. raw materials
Topiciality. Flora of Azerbaijan has a diverse vegetation cover and is rich in choice. However, today these sources of raw materials are not fully used to meet the needs of medicine and national economy. We conducted a resource reconnaissance survey of species of the genus Medicago in Azerbaijan and identified regions of mass growth. New natural habitats are located in different environmental conditions and it is possible to change the diagnostic features of the morphological and anatomical structure of plant materials, as well as the chemical composition. The combination of additional morphological and anatomical features allows a more accurate determination of the authenticity of the raw material.
Aim. To study the diagnostic signs of morphological and anatomical structure of Medicago falcata L. raw materials from the flora of Azerbaijan.
Materials and methods. Plant samples were fixed in a solution made in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH = 7.4), containing 2.5 % glutar-aldehyde, 2 % paraformal-aldehyde, 4 % sucrose, and 0.1 % picric acid. The fixed materials have been submitted to the Electron Microscopy Laboratory of the Azerbaijan Medical University for study by electron microscopy. Samples have been postfixed in 1 %-osmium tetraoxide solution prepared in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) within two hours after being left in the same fixer for one day. Araldite-Epon blocks made from materials using general methods adopted in electron microscopy. The semi-thin (1-2 µm) sections from the blocks taken on a EM UC7 (Leica, Germany) ultramicrotome, stained with methylene blue, azure II, and basic fuchsin were observed under microscope Primo Star (Zeiss, Germany) and images of required parts were shot with EOS D650 (Canon, Chine) digital camera.
Results and discussion. Multicellular trichome covered on both leaf sides. Adaxial epidermis a sheet plate have sinuous cells, and abaxial epidermis have differed slightly sinuous cells with clear-shaped walls. In leaflet anatomy of plant vascular bundles are of the collateral type. Stomatas are located from both sides of a leaf. Stomata belong to anisocytic structure. The epidermis of the stem consists of elongated thick-walled cells with anisocytic stomata. The calyx is densely covered by trichomes. The outer epidermis of cross-section of the keel petals cells is the wing horns cells form. And inner epidermis consists of oval cells. Mesophyll cells inside the leaf consist of loose spongy cells on the underside with several conducting bundles (dorsoventral).Conclusions. Morphological and anatomical studying of raw material Medicago falcata L. has shown, that there are prominent features of a structure:four large conductive bundles are located on the cross section of the stem at the corners of the ribs on two sides. Between angular conductive bundles, there are three conductive bundles, and the other two sides are located along one conductive bundle. Therefore, M. Falcata L. differs from M. Sativa L. The epidermis of the stem consists of elongated thickened-walls cells with anisocytic stomata. The indicated diagnostic morphological and anatomical characters could be used in the compilation of a monograph and in identifying plant materials on the raw material of Medicago falcata L.
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GOST Style Citations
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8. Human D. V., Sumner L. W. Metabolic profiling of saponins in Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula using HPLC coupled to an electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometer. Phytochemistry. 2002. № 59. Р. 347–360. DOI: 10.1016/s0031-9422(01)00432-0 (Date of access: 23.07.2020).
9. Medicago spp. Extracts as promising ingredients for skin care products / F. Rodrigues et al. Industrial Crops and Products. 2013. № 49. Р. 634–644. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.06.015 (Date of access: 23.07.2020).
10. Bioactive constituents from Medicago sativa L. with antioxidant, neuroprotective and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities / L. Xue-Gui et al. Journal of Functional Foods. 2018. № 45. Р. 371–380. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2018.04.025 (Date of access: 23.07.2020).
11. Bora K. S., Sharma A. Pharmacognostic standardization of Medicago sativa Linn. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2012. № 5 (7). Р. 3640–3643.
12. Kuo J. Electron microscopy: methods and protocols. Totowa : Humana Press, 2007. 625 р.
13. D’Amico F. A polychromatic staining method for epoxy embedded tissue: a new combination of methylene blue and basic fuchsine for light microscopy. Biotech Histochem. 2005. № 80 (5–6). Р. 207–10. DOI: 10.1080/10520290600560897 (Date of access: 23.07.2020).
14. Moawed M. M. Evaluation of morphological and anatomical characters for discrimination and verification of some Medicago sativa (L.) Cultivars. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 2016. № 50 (2). Р. 183–192. DOI: 10.18805/ijare.v50i2.9590 (Date of access: 23.07.2020).
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Abbreviated key title: Ukr. biopharm. j.
ISSN 2519-8750 (Online), ISSN 2311-715X (Print)