Standardization parameters of modified extracts from Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. leaves




bearberry, leaves, extract, modification, standardization


Topicality. 25 % of the Ukrainian population is prone to the urinary system diseases and 10 % has signs of kidney and bladder chronic diseases. Common bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.) leaves are one of the most well-known types of the medicinal plant raw material with the uroantiseptic and diuretic activity. The method of obtaining a decoction from bearberry leaves is well known, but this dosage form is non-standardized, poorly stored, and it is difficult to maintain the accuracy of dosing. Therefore, the development of standardized medicines based on bearberry leaves is a crucial task.

Aim. To determine standardization parameters of modified dry extracts from Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. leaves in accordance with the requirements of the State Pharmacopeia of Ukraine (SPhU) and develop a draft of quality control methods (QCM) for these substances.

Materials and methods. The study subjects were dry extracts of bearberry leaves modified with cysteine, phenylalanine, valine, glycine and arginine. For the analysis of the extracts obtained the pharmacopoeial methods were used in accordance with the monographs of the SPhU “Common bearberry leaves”. Identification of biologically active substances (BAS) in the extracts was performed using TLC. The content of hydroquinone derivatives and flavonoids in the extracts was determined by the spectrophotometric method according to the SPhU.

Results and discussion. As a result of the research conducted the QCM drafts were developed; and according to their requirements dry extracts of bearberry modified with cysteine, phenylalanine, valine, glycine and arginine were studied. The QCM drafts for dry extracts of bearberry were developed by the following indicators: description, solubility, identification (TLC: method A (hydroquinone derivatives), B (flavonoids) and C (amino acids)), loss on drying (not more than 10 %), residual amounts of organic solvents (ethyl alcohol not more than 1.0 %), heavy metals (not more than 100 ppm), microbiological purity, the content of hydroquinone derivatives (not less than 5 % calculated with reference to arbutin) and flavonoids (not less than 2 % calculated with reference to rutin)). All extracts met the requirements of the documentation developed.

Conclusions. The QCM drafts for modified dry extracts of bearberry leaves have been developed; according to their requirements, 5 dry extracts modified with cysteine, glycine, valine, phenylalanine and arginine have been studied. The standardized extracts obtained are promising substances. They can be used for developing dosage forms of new medicines with the uroantiseptic, diuretic and hypoglycemic activity.

Author Biographies

N. Chaika, National University of Pharmacy of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine

postgraduate student of the Pharmacognosy Department

O. Koshovyi, National University of Pharmacy of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine

Doctor of Pharmacy (Dr. habil.), professor, head of the Pharmacognosy Department

M. Komisarenko, National University of Pharmacy of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine

teaching assistant of the Pharmacognosy Department

I. Kireyev, National University of Pharmacy of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine

Doctor of Medicine (Dr. habil.), professor, Director of the Educational and Scientific Institute of Applied Pharmacy

G. Kravchenko, National University of Pharmacy of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine

Candidate of Biology (Ph.D), associate professor, head of the Biological Chemistry Department


DP “Ukrainskyi naukovyi farmakopeinyi tsentr yakosti likarskykh zasobiv”. (2015). Derzhavna Farmakopeia Ukrainy. (Vols. 1-3; Vol. 1). (2nd ed.). Kharkiv: DP “Ukrainskyi naukovyi farmakopeinyi tsentr yakosti likarskykh zasobiv”, 1128.

Plekhanov, A. N., Dambayev, A. B. (2016). Acta Biomedica Scientifica, 1 (1), 70–74.

Mashkovskii, M. D. (2012). Lekarstvennye sredstva. Moscow: Novaia Volna, 1216.

Chernykh, V. P. (Ed.). (2016). Pharmaceutical encyclopedia. Kyiv: MORION, 1952.

Parejo, I., Viladomat, F., Bastida, J., Codina, C. A. (2001). A Single Extraction Step in the Quantitative Analysis of Arbutin in Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) Leaves by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Phytochem. Anal., 12, 336–339. doi: 10.1002/pca.602.

Radulović, N., Blagojević, P., Palić R. (2010). Comparative Study of the Leaf Volatiles of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. And Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae). Molecules, 15, 6168-6185. doi:10.3390/molecules15096168.

Linderborg, K., Laaksonen, O., Kallio, H., Yang, B. (2011). Flavonoids, sugars and fruit acids of alpine bearberry (Arctostaphylos alpina) from Finnish Lapland. Food Research International, 44 (7), 2027–2033. doi:

Amarowicz, R., Pegg, R.B., Kosińska, A. (2008). Chromatographic separation of tannin fractions from a bearberry-leaf (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L. Sprengel) extract by HPLC – a short report. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 58 (4), 485–490.

Amarowicz, R., Pegg, R. B. (2013). Inhibition of proliferation of human carcinoma cell lines byphenolic compounds from a bearberry-leaf crude extract and its fractions. Ournal of functional foods, 5, 660–667. doi: f.2013.01.009.

Komisarenko, M. A., Heiderykh, A. S., Kovaleva, A. M., Koshovyi, O. M. (2012). Farmakom, 1/2, 50–54. Available at:

Chaika, N. B., Komisarenko, M. A., Koshovyi, O. M., Kovaleva, A. M., Borodina, N. V. (2019). Fitoterapiya. Chasopys, 4, 64–68. doi:

Chaika, N. B., Koshovyi, O. M., Kireiev, I. V., Ilʹiina, T. V., Borodina, N. V. (2020). Patent Ukraina № 141184. Biul., 6.

Chaika, N. B., Koshovyi, O. M., Kireiev, I. V., Komisarenko, M. A., Kovaleva A. M. (2020). Patent Ukraina № 140872. Biul., 5.

Koshovyi, O. M., Kravchenko, H. B., Krasilʹnikova, O. A., Mazen, Matar, Chaika, N. B. (2020). Patent Ukraina № 142930. Biul., 13.

Chaika, N. B., Koshovyi, O. M., Kireiev, I. V., Zupanets, I. A., Komisarenko, A. M. (2020). Patent Ukraina № 140486. Biul., 4.

Kurkin, V. A., Riazanova, T. K., Platonov, I. A., Pavlova, L. V. (2015). Khimiia rastitelnoho syria, 1, 95–100. doi:

Migas, P., Krauze-Baranowska, M. (2015). The significance of arbutin and its derivatives in therapy and cosmetics. Phytochemistry Letters, 13, 35–40. doi:

Koshovyi, O. M. (2013). Suchasni pidkhody do stvorennya likarskykh zasobiv na osnovi roslyn rodiv Evkalipt ta Shavliya. Extended abstract of Doctors thesis. Kharkiv, 41.

Koshovyi, O. N., Vovk, H. V., Akhmedov, E. Yu., Komissarenko, A. N. (2015). The study of the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of Salvia officinalis leaves extracts getting by complex processing. Azerbaijan Pharmaceutical and Pharmacotherapy Journal, 1, 30–34.

Koshovyi, O. M., Perederii, Ye. O., Osolodchenko, T. P., Kovaleva, A. M., Komisarenko, A. M. (2011). Klinichna farmatsiia, 1, 26–29.

Koshovyi, O., Romanenko, Ye., Komissarenko, A. (2016). The study of the phenolic composition of the dry extract of motherwort herb and its psychotropic activity. American Journal of Science and Technologies, 1 (21), 1055–1059.





Biopharmaceutical research